In Vitro Fertilization (IFV) Chronology.
The historical path of the innovative scientific method.
The history of fertility doctor begins in 1878 by Austrian embryologist Samuel Leopold Schenk (1840-1902). In vitro fertilization involves the fertilization of the ovum from the sperm outside the woman’s body in a laboratory environment. Then, after fertilization and early stages of embryo development, it is placed in the mother’s womb. This laboratory procedure bypasses the normal way of fertilizing the ovum from the sperm into the woman’s fallopian tube. The method ultimately enables couples to enjoy childbirth when damaged female fallopian tubes are present in cases of infertility.
The stages of this revolutionary assisted reproductive technology include:
- The capture of the egg.
- Cultivation in the laboratory in a special place.
- Development of embryos in special furnaces in specific growing conditions.
- Transferring the appropriate embryos to the uterus.
- Τhe implantation to follow the pregnancy.
The process of this methodology crowned with success in the last quarter of the 20th century.
The history of the fertility doctor.
The historical path of this innovative scientific method begins at the end of the 19th century. The first IVF effort made by an Austrian embryologist who made reference to the introduction. In 1878, the doctor examining the rabbit and guinea-pig eggs observed that cell division occurred after the addition of semen to the ova. The professor of medicine at the University of Cambridge Walter Heape (1855-1929) observed reproductions of various animal species. He announced the first known Ivf case in rabbits. This has taken place long before proposing similar applications for human fertility.
Early in 2000.
In 1932 the British novelist, philosopher and satirist author Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) described the Ivf in the way we know today in a realistic way. In 1934, American biologist and researcher Gregory Pincus (1903-1967) published a research study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. What was the content of the study? The research suggested that mammalian ova may undergo in vitro normal growth. The same view was made in the same year by Dr. Ernst Vincent Enzmann, from the General Physiology Laboratory at Harvard University.
These two investigators tried to perform Ivf on the rabbits claiming they had achieved their first successful pregnancy. The subsequent conclusion of the study concluded that fertilization technically achieved in the body rather than outside the body. This was because they implanted the eggs into the rabbit uterus after 12 hours before the eggs matured completely. Oocytes implanted in the rabbit uterus after just 12 hours prior to egg maturation. So fertilization arose inside the body.
The history of the fertility doctor in 1951 recorded two scientists working independently. British Australian Veterinary Professor Colin Russell Austin (1914-2004) in Australia and the Chinese-American reproductive biologist Min Chueh Chang (1908-1991) in the United States of America. These two scientists have demonstrated that sperm must mature through specific stages before they develop the ability to fertilize. In 1959, Chang successfully used Ivf to make a rabbit pregnant. Of course, significant advances in the development of a successful Ivf technique with human embryos not observed until the 1970s.
A British gynecologist Patrick Steptoe (1913-1988) who was working at the Oldham General Hospital in Manchester, was a laparoscopy leader. He created a team with the British biologist and physiologist Robert Edwards (1925-2013). Edwards was a Professor of Human Reproduction at Cambridge University. Their collaboration began in 1968 when Edwards attended a Steptoe lecture on laparoscopy at the Royal Society of Medicine in London. Initially, they succeeded in successful fertilization and in vitro cell division of ova with newly extracted sperm. However, they could not make successful implantation in a female uterus until 1978. Throughout these years they have been trying to regulate the woman’s hormone levels. This was done until the eggs matured and then removed several ovaries from the laparoscopic ovaries. This invasive surgery requires entry through the hub.
The Steptoe and Edwards method.
It involves in vitro fertilization of ova and staying there until fertilized eggs divided into eight cells before implantation. In fact, by the mid-1970s, they waited until the fertilized egg divided into 100 cells prior to implantation. For the first time in the history of a fertility doctor, there is an experiment on a human body. In 1977, a fertilized egg transported at midnight, while the egg was mature and ready. The time of transfer was random. Later they discovered the importance of time. They realized that daily cycles of hormone levels are critical to the successful implantation of the egg into the uterine wall. The whole effort was crowned with complete success on July 25, 1978.
Lesley Brown is the first woman in the world who gave birth from the history of a fertility doctor. The first female baby born at the Oldham General Hospital in Great Britain. On January 14, 1979, the team of two scientists managed to bring the first male baby to life. So, the first baby born in Glasgow, Scotland with the Ivf method and his name was Alastair MacDonald.
To date, more than 3 million babies have been born using this method and other similar technologies. The laparoscopic method is no longer used today. Instead of this technique, doctors use transmucosal recovery of the oocytes today. In this method, a needle guided through superficial frequencies through the vaginal wall and into the ovaries to receive oocytes. In this way, the risks associated with laparoscopic anesthesia and the cost of the procedure reduced. Finally, the possibility of freezing and cryopreservation of fertilized embryos with the prospect of transfer and implantation in the uterus at a later time significantly improved the desired results.
In 2010, Robert Edwards awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, in recognition of his contribution to the development of Ivf.