Clinically Management Prostate Cancer Guidelines
Clinically Management Prostate Cancer Guidelines.
This article explains the necessary clinically management prostate cancer guidelines taken in case of prostate cancer suspected. If the results of the initial examinations suspected of prostate cancer then it is advisable to perform a prostate biopsy.
Increased levels in the Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test lead to the biopsy. A high PSA level can be the main indication of prostate disease, yet it can likewise be an indication of a less-genuine condition. Discover why else you may have an anomalous PSA perusing. More info about Prostate-specific antigen explains the National Cancer Institute. During the biopsy, small human tissue samples taken and examined in detail for the presence of prostate cancer. Prostate biopsy performed in Medical Local Anesthesia. Before and after the biopsy, antibiotics administered to prevent Prostatitis.
At this stage, a medical ultrasound machine enters the rectum. Guided by the ultrasonic head pictures, it can control any suspect area. Then a fine needle directed to these areas of the prostate. A special mechanism advances the needle automatically into the prostate and cuts a small piece of tissue. The process of obtaining the thin piece of tissue lasts fractions of a second and that is why a little painful. If a pathological area found in the ultrasound, a biopsy is made in that area. If no pathological point is found, 12 or more biopsies from different areas of the prostate will be taken. Many large-size prostates may need more than 12 biopsies. This is so in order to have an adequate image of the prostate for the sure prevention of prostate cancer. After biopsy, it is normal for patients to have a little blood in the urine.
Medical Biopsy Opinion.
Clinically management prostate cancer guidelines done by the pathologist-anatomist specialized in the diagnosis of cancer and other pathological tissue damage. There are 3 result data in the report.
- Negative without any evidence of prostate cancer. Sometimes it shows Prostatitis. However, most of these are evidence of Hyperplasia and some other findings not related to cancer.
- In the presence of so-called PIN (Prostate Intraepithelial Neoplasia).
- Positive. That is, a definitive presence of prostate cancer.
Complete Medical Analysis of the 3 results.
There is no need to mention further details as there is no evidence of cancer.
Prostate Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN).
Regarding the PIN it is necessary to distinguish whether it is low or high grade. In the case of low grade, only monitoring of the patient is recommended. High grade is considered a Pre-cancerous lesion with a 50% chance of developing prostate cancer. In this case, monitoring is more cautious and if the Prostate-specific antigen increases at the same time, the biopsy repeats. The high degree of PIN coexists with prostate cancer in the 50-90% range, while the low PIN at 20%. The high degree of PIN identified with Intraepithelial Carcinoma In Situ in contrast to the invasive carcinoma, which breaks down the basement membrane. Until today, it has not been elucidated how often PIN can develop into clinical prostate cancer. Pin detection in the prostate biopsy not change the treatment. However, it indicates the possibility of invasive prostate carcinoma present at another position.
In this case, they need additional information about the exact type, the character and the risk of cancer. The percentage of prostate cancer within the microscopic cylinders taken from the calculated biopsy. Also refer to the percentage of the entire biopsy tissue. What directs the urologist for clinically management prostate cancer guidelines the next steps are the degree of malignancy. The degree of malignancy measured in Gleason grading system classified in units from 2-10. The Gleason score along with the PSA are the key elements that help determine and predict cancer.
Degree of Malignancy.
If a prostate biopsy confirms the presence of cancer, the next step is to determine the degree of aggression. It is estimated how rapidly prostate cancer develops slowly in years or months. The small tissue pieces obtained studied and compared to those of normal prostate cells. The more a cancer cell differs from normal, the more malignant and aggressive the cancer is and spreads rapidly. Cancer cells differ in shape and size, some may be aggressive and others may not. The Pathologist determines clinically management prostate cancer guidelines. It also finds and records those areas that display most cancer cells. These sites control the aggressive forms of cancer cells by giving a degree of malignancy.
Analysis of the Scale of Cancer Scores.
The most common scale of malignancy of prostate cancer cells varies between 1 and 5 with 1 representing the less aggressive form of cancer. Gleason Score symbolizes the sum of two grades of malignancy of the most aggressive forms of cancer found in the previous two larger areas. The Gleason Score can range from 2 to 10 with 2 symbolizing the mild form of cancer. It can also help determine the best form of treatment for a particular patient. Clinically management prostate cancer guidelines with score over 7 contains prostate cancer with a degree of malignancy of at least 4. Therefore, for this reason, such prostate tumors have a worse prognosis.
4 Additional Tests to Calculate the Spread of Cancer.
Since prostate cancer is diagnosed, clinically management prostate cancer guidelines additional tests are required to determine the extent of spread. Many men do not need additional tests and can proceed immediately based only on the characteristics of the cancer found in the biopsy and the results of the PSA examination before the biopsy.
1. Bone scan.
If bone disease is suspected, the bone scan is performed. This test takes a picture of the skeleton to determine the extension of bone cancer. Prostate cancer can cause bone metastases, not just those near the prostate, such as the pelvis and spine bone. During the painless examination, a small amount of a harmless Radio-pharmaceutical injected into a vein. This drug deposited in the cancerous sites of the skeleton and makes them visible. After a few hours, the patient placed in front of a dedicated camera that controls the entire skeleton. Black shadows on the skeleton mean metastasis. A uniform skeleton indicates a lack of metastases.
2. Computed Tomography CT upper and lower abdomen.
CT scan shows transverse incisions of the body. It can diagnose swollen lymph nodes or other pathological conditions in various human organs but he can not tell if these problems are due to cancer. For this reason, CT scan serves only when combined with other examinations. The problem is that in order to develop pathological lymph nodes these X-rays must have a diameter greater than one centimeter. To date, there is no such method as to make even minimal invasion of the lymph nodes from cancerous cells. Thus, microscopic metastases of the cancer outside the prostate capsule can not be displayed with great precision.
3. Magnetic Resonance MRI.
It gives a detailed transverse image of the body using magnetic radio waves. MRI contributes to the detection of possible metastases in the lymph nodes and bones. It presents the same limitations as CT. Its advantage in relation to CT is the lack of exposure to radiation.
4. Biopsy of Lymph Nodes.
If swollen lymph nodes found, a lymph node biopsy can determine if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. The biopsy of the lymph nodes may either be part of a total prostate removal procedure or be performed separately. During the surgery, the suspected lymph nodes located around the prostate removed. Then, they examined with a microscope to see if there are cancer cells. The usual practice is to make a lymph node at the same time as the total prostate removal surgery.
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