- 1 12 major risk factors for Colon cancer.
- 2 1. Age.
- 3 2. Hereditary Diseases.
- 4 3. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC).
- 5 4. Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC).
- 6 5. Hereditary Cancer Of The Colon To The Jews Ashkenazi.
- 7 6. Family Medical History.
- 8 7. Individual Medical History.
- 9 8. Lifestyle.
- 10 9. No Physical Exercise.
- 11 10. Obesity.
- 12 11. Smoking and Alcohol.
- 13 12. Fatty Foods & Cholesterol.
12 major risk factors for Colon cancer.
There are 12 major risk factors for Colon cancer including age, history of certain diseases, etc. Read more below for more.
People at higher risk are those who have had a colon cancer patient in the narrow family environment. As well as those suffering from chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Persons with these risk factors account for only 25% of all patients with Colon cancer. This is why it is important for people without specific risk factors to take preventive examinations.
Here are the following 12 major risk factors for Colon cancer.
For most people, age is the major risk factor for developing Colon cancer. Less than 10% of cases are seen in people less than 40 years old. Most of these cases occur in people over 50 years old. The incidence of Bowel cancer at the age of 50 is less than 1 in 1,000 but at the age of 85 is 7 in 1,000. One reason that Colorectal cancer is an age-dependent disease is that it takes many years to make cellular changes. These changes take place in the colon and rectum to convert the precancerous state into cancerous. Most cancers in the area begin as Polyps, which become more common in older age.
Such polyps have about 30% of Americans but also of all Western populations at the age of 50 and a half at the age of 70 years. Less than 1% of them become cancerous. Because there is no way to recognize the evolution of polyps and their conversion to cancer, detection and removal is the safest way to prevent.
2. Hereditary Diseases.
Hereditary diseases are diseases caused by mutations in genes that can be inherited from generation to generation. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) and Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) are due to about 5% of colon cancers. People with such a family history can undergo genetic testing. In this way, they can check whether they have the genetic mutations that cause the disease in their cells. Such genetic testing takes place in large medical centers. Expert for advice and discussion about genetic tests is the Doctor or Geneticist.
The National Cancer Institute maintains lists of Geneticists, family planning consultants, Doctors, and Nurses experienced in Genetic testing.
3. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC).
This type of Polyposis is a set of diseases, which are involved in mutations of the gene APC. Thousands of polyps grow in the Colon, causing one of them to develop cancer. The disease is rare, afflicts about 1 in 8,000-10000 people and is responsible for 1% of all cases of Bowel cancer. All people with this disease are sure to develop cancer by the age of 40 years. The only case for not getting cancer is to preventively remove the polyps with Surgery.
4. Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC).
This type of cancer is caused by mutations in several genes encoding proteins responsible for repairing DNA. The most commonly involved genes are MSH2 and MLH1. The mutations are related to the process of repairing a cell’s DNA. This allows the accumulation of errors in other key genes that control cell growth. Mutations lead to early Bowel cancer, mainly in the colon at an average age of 46 years. Unlike APC, this disease does not cause the development of a large number of Polyps. Mutations in these DNA repair genes also associated with early cancer growth in the ovary, the endometrium, the stomach, and the genital tract.
5. Hereditary Cancer Of The Colon To The Jews Ashkenazi.
Approximately 6% of Jews Ashkenazi from Eastern Europe have an increased risk of developing cancer. These individuals have inherited a change in the APC gene and have an increased risk of 8% -30% compared to 5% of the general population. In addition to this Polyposis, this particular change increases the chances of a second mutation in the cancer-causing genes.
6. Family Medical History.
In addition to the above situations, someone is at higher risk than the general population, for colon cancer. At a higher risk than the general population, it is he who has a first-degree relative (parent or brother) who is afflicted with Colorectal cancer before the age of 60. About 15% of people with Bowel cancer have a strong family history of the disease. But it’s not just the family history of cancer that increases its chances of being. The existence of Polyps in close family members also increases the risk. A first-degree relative with polyps less than 60 or two or more first-degree relatives with polyps at any age also increases the risk of 12 major risk factors for Colon cancer.
7. Individual Medical History.
Specific diseases and conditions increase the risk of Colon cancer. The greatest risk arises from an individual history of Ulcerative Colitis. Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is a disease that causes inflammation and sores, called ulcers, in the lining of the Rectum and Colon. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease. People suffering from this disease for many years are 20 times more at risk than the general population. Crohn’s disease also increases the risk of 12 major risk factors for Colon cancer.
Crohn’s disease is a lifelong condition in which parts of the digestive system become inflamed. Crohn’s disease affects people of all ages. The symptoms usually start in childhood or early adulthood.
The main symptoms are:
- Stomach Cramps.
- Blood in your poo
- Weight loss
The symptoms may be constant or may come and go every few weeks or months. When they come back, it’s called a flare-up.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
It can sometimes cause cancer, but it is not a major risk factor. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
- History of non-cancerous Polyps.
- Previous Colon cancer.
- Stomach Ache.
- Changes in bowel habits.
Discuss all these symptoms with your doctor.
Specific conditions and other lifestyle factors associated with an increased risk of Colon cancer. By adjusting and reducing these risk factors including sedentary life, smoking, and consumption of red meat, you reduce the risk in half. Watching a TV program increases the chances of developing Colon cancer. One study found that only one hour of watching TV per day is associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer by 12%, a rate that rose to a surprising 70% when women watched TV for two or more hours a day. This connection remained even when factors such as exercise were taken into account.
9. No Physical Exercise.
Several studies have shown that people who exercise little or no, are more vulnerable to cancer, than people who exercise every day. Among all the factors of everyday life, the absence of physical exercise considered a key factor. One possible explanation is that lack of exercise can increase certain levels of amounts such as insulin, and insulin-like factors. These are thought to stimulate abnormal cell growth in the large intestine. Another theory is that the more exercise, the slower the content passes into the large intestine. Thus, you increase the time of exposure of cells to possible fecal carcinogens.
The body mass index of more than 25 units increases the risk of Colon cancer. One study showed an increased risk for overweight women by 50%. A 1998 study with a sample of about 6,000 Italian men and women, showed:
- For men, the high body mass index associated with an increased incidence of cancer.
- In women, however, Abdominal Obesity rather than mass index increases the risk.
Experts are not exactly aware of the reason for Obesity in increasing cancer cases. A possible explanation is a sedentary lifestyle of overweight people. Obesity, like a sedentary lifestyle, increases insulin levels, resulting in abnormal cell growth in the Colon.
11. Smoking and Alcohol.
These two factors are not as closely related to Bowel cancer as other cancers such as the Lung. However, several studies show that both smoking and high alcohol consumption increase the risk. The effects of smoking seem irreversible, in other words, smoking cessation does not reduce the risk. At least not to the extent that it reduces it to Lung cancer. However, cessation of smoking is important because it further reduces the likelihood of cancer occurring in the case of smoking cessation. A study showed that women who smoke more than 10 cigarettes a day have a double chance of getting cancer compared to those who have never smoked.
However, the risk does not increase up to 45 years from the start of smoking. The risk of developing polyps is increasing after 20 years, and polyps can lead to cancer. The more cigarettes consumed the greater the risk of Colon cancer. These results show that tobacco causes colon cancer with abnormal cell growth, creating polyps and subsequently cancer. Several other studies have shown similar results in men.
12. Fatty Foods & Cholesterol.
Researchers report that the more saturated foods and cholesterol are included in the diet, the greater the risk. Red meat that is rich in saturated fat is closely linked to the disease. Consuming red meat such as beef, lamb, pork, daily increases the risk by 2.5 times more than once a month. There are several 4 theories about the mechanism that dietary factors affect the risk of cancer.
A. Saturated Fats.
Cholesterol diet is responsible for many saturated fats and promotes tumor growth. This increases the presence of Ketosteroids, chemical byproducts of cholesterol metabolism and stimulates tumor growth.
B. Mucosal Cells.
This diet is high in fat, the theory argues that it is possible to trigger the onset of Carcinogenicity. Mucosal cells of the intestine are proliferated. Fat digestion increases the levels of bile acids in the stool, which lead the bowel cells to Hyperplasia.
C. Colon Bacteria.
High fat consumption changes the composition and rate of Bacteria that normally live in the Colon. A large number of bacteria being developed to aid in the development of cancer. A bacterial infection causes cancer in the stomach, but this has not been proven for the large intestine.
D. Cooking Red Meat.
Cooking red meat at very high temperatures and charcoal causes Carcinogenic factors. These carcinogens come into contact with the intestinal walls during digestion and this phenomenon causes Carcinogenicity. Fats of vegetables, most are unsaturated and are not related to the development of cancer. Fish fats also shield and protect the body from cancer.
|Risk factors that we can not intervene||Risk factors that we can intervene|
|Age||Diet (consumption of red meat)|
|Family medical history||Smoking|
|Hereditary Conditions – Diseases||No physical exercise|
|Individual history of inflammatory bowel disease||Obesity|
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